Friday, 13 March 2020 16:23

Investigadores del CSIC demuestran que un fármaco contra el mieloma logra frenar un coronavirus humano

  • Un equipo del CNB-CSIC ha demostrado ‘in vitro’ que el fa´rmaco plitidepsina bloquea la multiplicación del coronavirus humano HCoV-229E

  •  Los investigadores probarán ahora la eficacia del fármaco contra un coronavirus SARS, similar al nuevo virus que causa la enfermedad Covid-19

Investigadores del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) han demostrado in vitro que el fármaco Aplidin (plitidepsina), descubierto por la farmacéutica española PharmaMar, y usado para tratar el mieloma, logra frenar la multiplicación del coronavirus HCoV-229E, que pertenece a la familia del nuevo coronavirus que ha provocado una pandemia. Ahora, los investigadores van a estudiar si este fármaco es efectivo también contra el coronavirus SARS, muy similar al SARS- CoV-2 que causa la enfermedad Covid-19. “Es un resultado prometedor”, apunta el virólogo Luis Enjuanes, que dirige junto a Isabel Sola el laboratorio de coronavirus del Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), en Madrid.

“Hemos observado que el fármaco logra frenar la multiplicación de un tipo de coronavirus humano, pero no lo hemos probado aún con un coronavirus mortal para el ser humano”, indica Enjuanes. “El resultado es prometedor porque este fármaco tiene una gran eficacia, pero aún queda probarlo contra el coronavirus SARS-CoV-1, similar al nuevo (SARS-CoV-2)”, añade. “En el laboratorio del CNB-CSIC conocemos bien el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 y vamos a evaluar la eficacia del fármaco en colaboración con la farmacéutica PharmaMar”.

La investigadora Sonia Zúñiga, del equipo de Enjuanes, señala que “el compuesto de PharmaMar ha funcionado muy bien, porque ha impedido la multiplicación del virus incluso en concentraciones pequeñas, que sabemos que son seguras porque son más pequeñas que las se utilizan en clínica para tratar el mieloma”.

La viróloga del CSIC Isabel Sola, con más de veinte años de experiencia en el estudio de los coronavirus, indica que “tras este primer resultado prometedor queda confirmar la eficacia del compuesto en un coronavirus humano muy similar al que circula ahora, como es el SARS-CoV-1, de 2002. Y por último quedaría probar la eficacia en el virus de interés, que es el SARS-CoV-2, que es el que está causando la pandemia”.

Sola recuerda las etapas que debe pasar la experimentación con el nuevo fármaco antes de que pueda ser aplicado en los seres humanos. “Primero necesitamos los permisos de bioseguridad para poder evaluar la eficacia del compuesto en el laboratorio en cultivos celulares con el SARS-CoV-2. Luego se pasa a una segunda fase en la que se realizan ensayos preclínicos con animales, y se demuestra su eficacia en modelos animales, y finalmente se pasa a una tercera etapa en la que se experimenta en humanos para confirmar su eficacia antes de aplicarlo en clínica”.

“¿Cuándo podríamos saber si este fármaco es eficaz contra el nuevo coronavirus? Podría ser cuestión de dos o tres meses”, añade Enjuanes.

CSIC comunicación


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